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Fruit Trees

ROOTSTOCK INFORMATION

Apple | Pear | Plum | Peach | Nectarine | Apricot | Cherry | Medlar | Quince | Almond | Bullace | Cherry Plum | Damson | Crab Apple

Fruit tree scions are propagated onto rootstocks by a process called "GRAFTING" and also by the process known as "BUDDING".

The rootstock is the most important factor in determining the vigour and eventual size of the tree. The choice of rootstock is therefore very important as it will determine the suitability of the tree for the position and the form in which you intend to grow it.

Below you'll find a list of rootstocks and their characteristics. When buying a fruit tree from a plant nursery it is important to know on to what rootstock the original scion has been grafted on to, as it will dictate the vigour and eventual size of your tree, thereby influencing your eventual fruit crop.

If in doubt then either ask the nurseryman for advice or check this Fact-File that has been produced for you on behalf of the Aeron Vale Allotment Society.

Table 1

Rootstock Types & Habits (Apple)

Very Dwarfing

6ft /2m

Dwarfing

 

8ft/2.5m

Semi Dwarfing

10ft / 3m

Semi Vigorous

14ft/4m

Vigorous

 

18ft / 5m

= Very Small = Small = Medium = Large Very Large

M27

others available

M9

others available

M26

others available

M106

others available

MM111

others available

The most widely-used rootstock in Europe in the 19th century was called Paradise. During the 1920s researchers at East Malling Research Station in the UK were the first to classify rootstocks and develop new ones for specific purposes. One of their first rootstocks was "M9", which was developed from Paradise and another variety called "Jaune de Metz". (It is possible that "Jaune" refers to the golden yellow bark of this rootstock). Apple trees grown on M9 rootstocks are small, and they fruit very early in life - making this an ideal rootstock for commercial apple orchards, and it is indeed probably the most widely-planted of all rootstocks. East Malling Research Station, in conjunction with some other UK research stations at Merton and Long Ashton developed a range of virus-free rootstocks of which M27, M9, M26, MM106, M7, MM111, and M25 are in widespread use today. Note that the numbers in the East Malling series have no relation to the size of the tree - M27 and M26 produce trees which are respectively smaller and larger than M9!

The examples listed above are of the most popular UK  apple rootstocks which are well-known, smallest (1) to largest (5)

here is a little more general information about them:

 

M27

Very small indeed; around half the size of M9. Tree needs full support. Fruit size reduced slightly. Moribund in wet soils. Very little pruning is required once the tree is full size (around 5ft high; produces perhaps 20 apples a year). It's OK in pots. It's susceptible to tomato ring spot virus.

 

M9

The best known dwarfing rootstock. This is the rootstock used at Brogdale, UK, for the National Fruit Collection. It is a cross between a French tree, "Jaune de Metz", and the "Paradise" apple of ancient Persia. It is known as the "Paradise" stock of Europe. It fruits when very young, is fairly hardy, tolerant of wet but not drought, and compatible with all apple scions. It has to be staked strongly, its roots are slightly brittle, and it is about 8-9 feet tall at maturity on an ideal soil.

 

M26

A cross of M9 and M16. Used in irrigated orchards on well drained solis. Fruits early in its life, needs permanent staking, hardy. Susceptible to crown rot and fireblight. M26 is not so good in wet, clay soils where it is rather moribund. Produces burr knots - the beginnings of little aerial roots - which attract pests and which can compromise the tree; these can be sliced off carefully in the garden situation. Planting deeper (so less rootstock is exposed) helps solve the problem commercially. Reaches about 8-10ft if unpruned. OK in pots.

 

MM106

A hydbid of Northern Spy (English dessert apple) and English Broadleaf. Well anchored, fruits early in its life, few suckers, fruit matures late, trees have a long season, OK in pots with less vigorous varieties. Susceptible to crown and root rot. Recommended by my supplier as a substitute for M26 in wet, cold soil : a little more vigorous. Semidwarf. 9-11ft high. Resistant to woolly aphid.

 

M7

Descended from a French tree, "Doucin Reinette". Very hardy. Likes deep, well drained soils. It suckers badly, is prone to crown gall, is resistant to fireblight, and tolerates wet soils. About the same size as MM106 (semidwarf). Has been used in New Hampshire, USA for 40 years. Fruits in 5th year. Has a tendency to lean. Most trees are very fruitful. Needs staking for first 4-5 years.

 

MM111

Northern Spy hybrid. About 75% of full size; too large for small gardens. Prone to burr knots. 10-12ft. Semi-dwarfing or half-standard. Resistant to woolly aphid.

 

M2

Very similar in size and vigour to MM111. Not quite so vigorous as M25.

 

M25

Full size tree; avoid unless you have a large space in which to grow it. Very vigorous; typically 12-15ft high; can be bigger depending on variety, large, heavy, spreading tree.

LIST of ROOTSTOCKS with DESCRIPTIONS & SPECIFICATIONS

(All Fruit Trees)


Apple:  M27  (Very dwarfing)

Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 4-6ft (1.2-1.8m)
Spread 5ft (1.5m)
Planting distance 4-5 ft (1.2-1.5m) apart, 6ft (1.8m) between rows
Mature yield 10-15lb (4.5-7kg)
Bearing age 2 years
Suitable forms Dwarf pyramid, centre leader, step-over

Apple:  M9  (Dwarfing)

Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 6-8ft (1.8-2.4m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance 8-10ft (2.4-3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield 25-50lb (11-23kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon

Apple:  M26  (Semi-dwarfing)

Requirements Can be grown in all reasonable soil conditions including grass orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 8-12ft (2.4-3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 30-80lb (13.5-36kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon, minaret, espalier, container

Apple:  MM106  (Semi-vigorous)

Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-13ft (3-4m)
Spread 13ft (4m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 50-100lb (23-56kg)
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Apple:  MM111  (Vigorous )

Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height 13-15ft (4-4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6m) between rows
Mature yield 100-400lb (45-180kg)
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard, half standard, large espalier

Apple:  M25  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height Over15ft (4.5m)
Spread 20ft (6m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield 200-400lb (90-180kg)
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms Standard

Pear:  Quince C  (Dwarfing)
Requirements Good fertile soil. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Stake for at least the first 5 years and preferably permanently.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance 9ft (2.7m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon, espalier

Pear:  Quince A  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m )
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Pear:  Pyrodwarf  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements A new relatively dwarfing pear rootstock. Can be used for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Ove 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half Standard

Pear:  Pyrus  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including poor soils and grassed orchards. Staking preferable for the first 3 years.
Mature height Over 20ft (6m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms  
 

Plum:  VVA-1  (Dwarfing)
Requirements A new dwarfing rootstock for plums. Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 7-9ft (2-2.7m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Plum:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Plum:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Plum:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard
 

Peach:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Peach:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Peach:  Krymsk 86  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements A new rootstock suitable for peaches, nectarines and almonds. Can be used for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height
Spread
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms  

Peach:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard
 

Nectarine:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Nectarine:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Nectarine:  Krymsk 86  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements A new rootstock suitable for peaches, nectarines and almonds. Can be used for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height
Spread
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms  

Nectarine:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard
 

Apricot:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Apricot:  Torinel  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements A new rootstock suitable for apricots. Can be used for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Apricot:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Apricot:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard

Cherry:  Gisela 5  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Good fertile soil. Ground should be cleared of weeds and grass. Staking required for the first 5 years. Very sensitive to systemic herbicides such as Glyphosate the use of which should be avoided around young trees.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Bush, small fan

Cherry:  Colt  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including relatively poor soils and grassed orchards. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height 12-15ft (3-4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush

Cherry:  F12/1  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including poor soils and grassed orchards. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height Over 20ft (6m)
Spread 20ft (6m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms Standard

Medlar:  Quince A  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m )
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Medlar:  Pyrodwarf  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements A new relatively dwarfing pear rootstock. Can be used for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Ove 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half Standard

Medlar:  Pyrus  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including poor soils and grassed orchards. Staking preferable for the first 3 years.
Mature height Over 20ft (6m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms  

Medlar:  Crataegus  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) is commonly used as a rootstock for medlars. Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m )
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Bush, half standard

Quince:  Quince C  (Dwarfing)
Requirements Good fertile soil. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Stake for at least the first 5 years and preferably permanently.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance 9ft (2.7m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon, espalier

Quince:  Quince A  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m )
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Quince:  Pyrus  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including poor soils and grassed orchards. Staking preferable for the first 3 years.
Mature height Over 20ft (6m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms  

Almond:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Bullace:  VVA-1  (Dwarfing)
Requirements A new dwarfing rootstock for plums. Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 7-9ft (2-2.7m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Bullace:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Bullace:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Bullace:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard

Cherry Plum:  VVA-1  (Dwarfing)
Requirements A new dwarfing rootstock for plums. Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 7-9ft (2-2.7m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Cherry Plum:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Cherry Plum:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous )
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Cherry Plum:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard

Damson:  VVA-1  (Dwarfing)
Requirements A new dwarfing rootstock for plums. Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 7-9ft (2-2.7m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Damson:  Pixy  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Requires good fertile soil and ground cleared of weeds and grass. Stake for the first 5 years. Requires watering in dry conditions.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 10ft (3m)
Planting distance 10ft (3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 3 years
Suitable forms Suitable Forms: Bush, pyramid, small fan

Damson:  St Julien A  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including relatively poor soil and grassed orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-12ft (3-3.6m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, fan

Damson:  Brompton  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for most soil conditions including poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height Over 15ft (4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard

Crab Apple:  M27  (Very dwarfing)
Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 4-6ft (1.2-1.8m)
Spread 5ft (1.5m)
Planting distance 4-5 ft (1.2-1.5m) apart, 6ft (1.8m) between rows
Mature yield 10-15lb (4.5-7kg)
Bearing age 2 years
Suitable forms Dwarf pyramid, centre leader, stepover

Crab Apple:  M9  (Dwarfing)
Requirements Good soil conditions. Ground should be clear of weeds and grass. Permanent staking required. Water in dry conditions.
Mature height 6-8ft (1.8-2.4m)
Spread 9ft (2.7m)
Planting distance 8-10ft (2.4-3m) apart, 12ft (3.6m) between rows
Mature yield 25-50lb (11-23kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon

Crab Apple:  M26  (Semi-dwarfing)
Requirements Can be grown in all reasonable soil conditions including grass orchards. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 8-10ft (2.4-3m)
Spread 12ft (3.6m)
Planting distance 8-12ft (2.4-3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 30-80lb (13.5-36kg)
Bearing age 2/3 years
Suitable forms Bush, pyramid, centre leader, cordon, minaret, espalier, container

Crab Apple:  MM106  (Semi-vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and relatively poor soils. Stake for the first 5 years.
Mature height 10-13ft (3-4m)
Spread 13ft (4m)
Planting distance 12ft (3.6m) apart, 15ft (4.5m) between rows
Mature yield 50-100lb (23-56kg)
Bearing age 3/4 years
Suitable forms Half standard, bush, cordon, espalier, container

Crab Apple:  MM111  (Vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height 13-15ft (4-4.5m)
Spread 15ft (4.5m)
Planting distance 15ft (4.5m) apart, 20ft (6m) between rows
Mature yield 100-400lb (45-180kg)
Bearing age 4/5 years
Suitable forms Standard, half standard, large espalier

Crab Apple:  M25  (Very vigorous)
Requirements Suitable for a wide range of soils including grassed orchards and poor soils. Staking preferable but not necessary if planted as a one year old. Stake for first 3 years if planted as 2/3 year trees.
Mature height Over15ft (4.5m)
Spread 20ft (6m)
Planting distance 20ft (6m) apart, 25ft (7.5m) between rows
Mature yield 200-400lb (90-180kg)
Bearing age 5/6 years
Suitable forms Standard
 
 

 

 

 

Compiled by: Gwilym ab Ioan 2012